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Performance-Helping FSGSBASE Patches Spun For Linux A 13th Time

Phoronix - staro 11 ur 39 min
The FSGSBASE Linux kernel patches that have the potential of helping performance going back to Intel Ivy Bridge era CPUs in select workloads have now hit their 13th revision to the series in the long-running effort to getting this support mainlined...

openSUSE Leap 15.2 Hits RC Phase With GNOME 3.34 + KDE Plasma 5.18, Sway

Phoronix - staro 12 ur 46 min
OpenSUSE Leap 15.2 has progressed to its release candidate phase ahead of the official release planned for the first week of July...

Mozilla Sponsored The Godot Game Engine To Port Their Editor As An HTML5 Web App

Phoronix - staro 13 ur 26 min
While we have been eager for Godot 4.0 as the open-source game engine update bringing big renderer improvements and initial Vulkan support, it also turns out there will be a new offering on the editor front.....

today's leftovers

tuxmachines.org - staro 15 ur 22 min
  • Cockpit 220

    Cockpit is the modern Linux admin interface. We release regularly. Here are the release notes from version 220.

  • My exciting journey into Kubernetes’ history

    Choosing the right steps when working in the field of data science is truly no silver bullet. Most data scientists might have their custom workflow, which could be more or less automated, depending on their area of work. Using Kubernetes can be a tremendous enhancement when trying to automate workflows on a large scale. In this blog post, I would like to take you on my journey of doing data science while integrating the overall workflow into Kubernetes.

    The target of the research I did in the past few months was to find any useful information about all those thousands of GitHub issues and pull requests (PRs) we have in the Kubernetes repository. What I ended up with was a fully automated, in Kubernetes running Continuous Integration (CI) and Deployment (CD) data science workflow powered by Kubeflow and Prow. You may not know both of them, but we get to the point where I explain what they’re doing in detail. The source code of my work can be found in the kubernetes-analysis GitHub repository, which contains everything source code-related as well as the raw data. But how to retrieve this data I’m talking about? Well, this is where the story begins.

  • First new Docker release under Mirantis appears
  • Injustice 2 Now Playable With Proton GE

    It’s all good in the fighting game neighborhood. Quite a number of fighting games are now available to play on Linux thanks to Proton, and now we can add another to that list with Injustice 2, with a customized version of Proton: Glorious Eggroll.

  • OpenBSD 6.7 and ffs2 FAQs

    In his mail, Otto clarifies some things about the latest release: [...]

  • New Debian Developers and Maintainers (March and April 2020)

    The following contributors got their Debian Developer accounts in the last two months:

    Paride Legovini (paride)
    Ana Custura (acute)
    Felix Lechner (lechner)

    The following contributors were added as Debian Maintainers in the last two months:

    Sven Geuer
    Håvard Flaget Aasen
    Congratulations!

  • Myriad X based AI accelerator module has a built-in 12MP, 4K camera

    Luxonis is crowdfunding an open source, $169 “megaAI” AI acceleration and camera module with an up to 4-TOPS Intel Myriad X VPU, a USB 3.0 port, and a 12-megapixel, 4K camera.

    When Luxonis launched its Intel Movidius Myriad X DepthAI AI acceleration module last November, an external 4K camera was optional. Now, Luxonis has gone to Crowd Supply to successfully launch a $169 megaAI module, which is like a DepthAI with an integrated 12-megapixel, 4K camera.

  • UDOO BOLT GEAR AMD Ryzen Embedded V1605B Mini PC with Arduino Subsystem Launched for $399

    UDOO BOLT was one of the first AMD Ryzen Embedded V1000 SBC‘s ever announced with a choice of Ryzen Embedded V1202B or V1605B dual-core/quad-core processor, and a Microchip ATmega32U4 MCU for real-time I/Os and Arduino compatibility.

    The company has now launched UDOO BOLT GEAR mini PC based on UDOO BOLT V8 SBC at a promotional price of $399 excluding taxes and shipping.

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Best Note Taking Apps for Linux Desktop

tuxmachines.org - staro 15 ur 26 min

Notes taking is a good habit. A good note taking application makes the habit even better. Here are some of the best notes apps that you can use on Linux.

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OSS and Other Leftovers

tuxmachines.org - staro 15 ur 30 min
  • Release notes for the Genode OS Framework 20.05

    Genode 20.05 takes our road map's focus on the consolidation and optimization of the framework and its API to heart. It contains countless of under-the-hood improvements, mostly on the account of vastly intensified automated testing, the confrontation of Genode with increasingly complex software stacks, and stressful real-world work loads. You will find this theme throughout the release notes below. The result of this overhaul is captured in the updated version of the Genode Foundations book (Section New revision of the Genode Foundations book).

    [...]

    Even though Genode is able to run on top of the Linux kernel since the very beginning, Linux was solely meant as a development vehicle.

  • Genode OS 20.05 Adds Capability-Based Security Using SECCOMP, Drops Python 2 + Rust

    Version 20.05 of the Genode open-source operating system framework is now available with many improvements.

    Genode OS 20.05 contains various work particularly on the consolidation and optimization front. There is also better 64-bit Arm support, documentation improvements, and capability-based security using SECCOMP on Linux.

    Genode OS 20.05 has improvements to its consistent block encrypter, retired its Noux runtime environment, removed Rust support after no one has been maintaining its support in years, dropping Python 2 given its EOL status and Python 3 support being in good shape, MSI-X support on x86, and various other updates.

  • Talk 9: big step forward for team calls, efficient work flows and open source back-end

    Nextcloud GmbH is glad to announce the upcoming major release of Nextcloud Talk that will include significant improvements for teams collaborating remotely, including easy document sharing with drag’n’drop, in-call collaborative document editing and significant modifications to facilitate calls with more participants. Together with this release, our partner Struktur AG makes the high-performance back-end available under the AGPL license. A first release candidate of Talk 9 is available today and the final release is expected in about two weeks. Most of the improvements in the area of performance and scalability have been backported to the stable Talk 8 series, making them available to users right now.

  • Nextcloud Talk 9 Makes Sharing And Collaborative Editing Documents Easier

    The upcoming major release of Nextcloud Talk will include improvements for teams collaborating remotely, including easy document sharing with drag’n’drop, in-call collaborative document editing and significant modifications to facilitate calls with more participants.

  • COVID-19 Crisis: FOSS Responders Raises $115,000 To Support Community

    Conference cancellations have caused financial loss, unmet fundraising trajectories and missed business opportunities. For example, the Open Source Institute, the organisation that ratifies open source licences, has indicated that it needs $600,000 to meet its funding goals for 2020 while the Drupal Association has had to layoff employees after cancelling events and needs to fundraise $500,000.

  • GNUnet Hacker Meeting 2020

    We are happy to announce that we will have a GNUnet Hacker Meeting from 17-21 of June 2020 taking place online. For more information see here.

  • It’s Time to Get Back Into RSS

    A lot of people who were on the internet in the early 2000’s remember something called RSS. It stands for really simple syndication, and it allowed content creators to publish updates to the world in a well-understood format.

    The idea—which seems strange to type out—is that millions of people in the world could create and publish ideas, thoughts, and content…and then people who enjoyed that content would collect sources into a reader, which was called, well, an RSS Reader.

    [...]

    But perhaps most devastating was the web’s move to an advertising model, which RSS runs directly counter to. With RSS you get the content itself, which your reader can choose to display in different ways. Advertisers hate that. They want you to see the original website so they can show you ads the way they want you to see them.

    I’m sure social media sites had an effect too, because—like aggregators—they were singular watering holes that guaranteed something exciting when you showed up. The common denominator is the move from more effort to less. It’s like in WALL-E, where we turn into morbidly obese people on hoverchairs being shuttled between stimuli.

    Regardless of the percentages, all those factors combined to destroy the model of getting raw content directly from the source.

    Well, it’s time to bring that back. It’s time to return to RSS.

    Google Reader is still dead, but if I remove my nostalgia glasses, feedly is probably better now than Reader ever was. It’s what I’ve been using for years now.

  • Building a successful open source community: How coordination and facilitation helps projects scale and mature

    We tend to think of the primary goals of the Linux Foundation’s projects as producing open software, open hardware, open standards, or open data artifacts — the domain of participating programmers & engineers, system architects, and other technical contributors.

    However, successful projects engaging a broader ecosystem of commercial organizations, particularly when raising funds, benefit from active leadership besides pure technical contributions. Contributors often have work outside the project that often puts demands on their time. It takes real time to build and coordinate a commercial ecosystem, ensure stakeholders are engaged, recruiting and onboarding members, create a neutral governance culture (often amid competitors competing), and to keep various aspects of the ecosystem aligned such as when end users begin to participate.

    Many Linux Foundation projects fundraise to provide resources for their community. This is an excellent benefit for the technical community when the business ecosystem comes together to invest and help the community obtain resources to build a thriving community and ecosystem. A typical fundraising model in our community is to offer an annual membership structure that provides a yearly fund for the project.

  • Chan Zuckerberg Initiative drops $3.8M on 23 biomedical open-source projects [Ed: A surveillance scion is openwashing the family's dirty 'surveillance capitalism' empire]
  • Oracle’s open-source alter ego behind some of its most popular products

    Open-source innovation may not be the words evoked by a legacy technology company such as Oracle, a company turning 43 years old next month. But the fact is that — like many companies — Oracle’s paid products and services are actually loaded with ingredients from open-source communities, including Linux, to which it is also a contributor.

    This circular ecosystem of contributing and borrowing back enables some of the versatility and cross-environment compatibility in the company’s latest database and hybrid-cloud offerings.

  • Christian Schaller: Into the world of Robo vacums and Robo mops

    So to conclude, would I recommend robot vacuums and robot mops to other parents with you kids? I would say yes, it has definitely helped us keep the house cleaner and nicer and let us spend less time cleaning the house. But it is not a miracle cure in any way or form, it still takes time and effort to prepare and set up the house and sometimes you still need to do especially the mopping yourself to get things really clean. As for the question of iRobot versus other brands I have no input as I haven’t really tested any other brands. iRobot is a local company so their vacuums are available in a lot of stores around me and I drive by their HQ on a regular basis, so that is the more or less random reason I ended up with their products as opposed to competing ones.

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Canonical Fixes Linux Kernel Regression in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS, 19.10 and 18.04 LTS

tuxmachines.org - staro 15 ur 46 min

The regression was introduced with the latest security updates released last week for Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (Focal Fossa), as well as Ubuntu 19.10 and 18.04.4 LTS. The regression affected Linux kernel’s OverlayFS file system implementation causing the Docker registry to keep restarting.

Affected kernels are Linux 5.4 (generic, generic-lpae, lowlatency, oem and virtual flavors) in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS 64-bit installations and Linux 5.3 (generic, generic-lpae, lowlatency, raspi2 and snapdragon flavors) in Ubuntu 19.10 and Ubuntu 18.04.4 LTS 32-bit, 64-bit and ARM (Raspberry Pi (V7)) systems.

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20 productivity tools for the Linux terminal

tuxmachines.org - staro 15 ur 59 min

Many of us, admittedly, only use computers because they're fun. But some people use computers to get stuff done, and their theory is computers are supposed to make things faster, better, and more organized. In practice, though, computers don't necessarily improve our lives without a little manual reconfiguration to match our individual work styles.

Kevin Sonney likes to design systems, not just for networks but for improving his own workday, and this year he covered 18 different productivity tools in a series of 20 articles. This article gets all of Kevin's favorite tools in one place and provides a quick summary of what each one can do for you.

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A new way to build cross-platform UIs for Linux ARM devices

tuxmachines.org - staro 16 ur 56 sec

Creating a great user experience (UX) for your applications is a tough job, especially if you are developing embedded applications. Today, there are two types of graphical user interface (GUI) tools generally available for developing embedded software: either they involve complex technologies, or they are extremely expensive.

However, we have created a proof of concept (PoC) for a new way to use existing, well-established tools to build user interfaces (UIs) for applications that run on desktop, mobile, embedded devices, and low-power Linux ARM devices. Our method uses Android Studio to draw the UI; TotalCross to render the Android XML on the device; a new TotalCross API called KnowCode; and a Raspberry Pi 4 to execute the application.

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Looking for Some Good Note Taking Apps on Linux? Here are the Best Note Apps we Found for You

tuxmachines.org - staro 16 ur 10 min

No matter what you do — taking notes is always a good habit. Yes, there are a lot of note taking apps to help you achieve that. But, what about some open-source note taking apps for Linux?

Fret not, you don’t need to endlessly search the Internet to find the best note taking app for Linux. Here, I’ve picked some of the most impressive open-source note taking apps available.

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Programming Leftovers

tuxmachines.org - staro 16 ur 18 min
  • Gaël Varoquaux: Technical discussions are hard; a few tips

    This post discuss the difficulties of communicating while developing open-source projects and tries to gives some simple advice.

    A large software project is above all a social exercise in which technical experts try to reach good decisions together, for instance on github pull requests. But communication is difficult, in particular between diverging points of view. It is easy to underestimate how much well-intended persons can misunderstand each-other and get hurt, in open source as elsewhere. Knowing why there are communication challenges can help, as well as applying a few simple rules.

  • Float/String Conversion in Picolibc

    When linked together, getting from float to string and back to float is a “round trip”, and an exact pair of algorithms does this for every floating point value.

    Solutions for both directions were published in the proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN 1990 conference on Programming language design and implementation, with the string-to-float version written by William Clinger and the float-to-string version written by Guy Steele and Jon White. These solutions rely on very high precision integer arithmetic to get every case correct, with float-to-string requiring up to 1050 bits for the 64-bit IEEE floating point format.

    That's a lot of bits.

  • Fortran newsletter: May 2020

    Welcome to the first monthly Fortran newsletter. It will come out on the first calendar day of every month, detailing Fortran news from the previous month.

    [...]

    If you came to this newsletter from elsewhere, welcome to the new Fortran website. We built this site mid-April and hope for it to be the home of Fortran on the [I]nternet, which traditionally there hasn’t been any to date. Look around and let us know if you have any suggestions for improvement. Specifically, Learn and Packages are the pages that we’ll be focusing on in the coming months. Please help us make them better!

  • Android Studio 4.0 Released With Overhauled CPU Profiler, Clangd For C++ Code

    Android Studio 4.0 is out today with this IDE bringing a number of improvements for developing Google Android apps.

    Android Studio 4.0 comes with a new motion editor, an upgraded layout inspector, enhancements to its built-in CPU profiler, smart editor features, Clangd support for C++ language analysis, new feature handling support, continued expansion of Kotlin support, and much more.

  • Looking for C-to-anything transpilers

    I’m looking for languages that have three properties:

    (1) Must have weak memory safety. The language is permitted to crash on an out -of-bounds array reference or null pointer, but may not corrupt or overwrite memory as a result.

  • Peeking Inside Executables And Libraries To Make Debugging Easier

    At first glance, both the executables that a compiler produces, and the libraries that are used during the building process seem like they’re not very accessible. They are these black boxes that make an application go, or make the linker happy when you hand it the ‘right’ library file. There is also a lot to be said for not digging too deeply into either, as normally things will Just Work™ without having to bother with such additional details.

    The thing is that both executables and libraries contain a lot of information that normally is just used by the OS, toolchain, debuggers and similar tools. Whether these files are in Windows PE format, old-school Linux a.out or modern-day .elf, when things go south during development, sometimes one has to break out the right tools to inspect them in order to make sense of what is happening.

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The Top Linux 5.7 Features From Apple Fast Charge To Official Tiger Lake Graphics

Phoronix - staro 16 ur 58 min
Assuming no last minute concerns, the Linux 5.7 kernel is set to debut as stable this weekend. Given all the weeks since the merge window and our many articles covering all the feature activity at that point (and not to be confused with our activity of new work being queued for the upcoming Linux 5.8 cycle), here is a look back at some of the top features of the Linux 5.7 kernel...

Linux's Hardware Monitoring "HWMON" Picking Up Notification Support

Phoronix - staro 19 ur 45 min
In addition to the AMD Zen "amd_energy" driver coming for Linux 5.8, another late change now queued into hwmon staging is introducing notification support for the hardware monitoring subsystem...

Microsoft and Proprietary Software

tuxmachines.org - staro 19 ur 56 min
  • Red Cross urges halt to cyberattacks on healthcare sector amid COVID-19 [iophk: Windows TCO]

    The Red Cross called for an end to cyberattacks on healthcare and medical research facilities during the coronavirus pandemic, in a letter published Tuesday and signed by a group of political and business figures.

    Such attacks endanger human lives and governments must take “immediate and decisive action” to stop them, the letter stated.

  • FBI offers US companies more details from investigations of health care [cr]acking

    Criminal and state actors continue to target U.S. clinical trial data, trade secrets, and the “sensitive data and proprietary research of U.S. universities and research facilities,” the FBI told industry in an advisory this week. “Likely due to the current global public health crisis, the FBI has observed some nation-states shifting cyber resources to collect against the [health care and public health] sector, while criminals are targeting similar entities for financial gain.”

    The advisory, which CyberScoop obtained, includes multiple examples since February of state-linked [attackers] trying to compromise and retain access to the networks of organizations in the U.S. health care and public health sector. It is the latest in a series of warnings from U.S. officials about similar cybersecurity incidents as the race for a coronavirus vaccine intensifies.

  • Microsoft copied its new Windows Package Manager from rival AppGet, claims developer

    Beigi interviewed in December, and then never heard anything back from the company for nearly six months until he received a 24-hour heads up that Microsoft was launching winget last week. “When I finally saw the announcement and the GitHub repositories, I was shocked? Upset? I wasn’t even sure what I was looking at,” says Beigi.

    Beigi claims the “core mechanics, terminology, the manifest format and structure, even the package repository’s folder structure” of Microsoft’s winget are all heavily inspired by AppGet. Microsoft only briefly mentions AppGet once in its announcement, in a throwaway line that lists other Windows package managers.

    “What was copied with no credit is the foundation of the project. How it actually works,” explains Beigi in a separate Reddit post. “And I don’t mean the general concept of package / app managers... WinGet works pretty much identical to the way AppGet works.”

  • The Day AppGet Died.

    TLDR; I’m no longer going to be developing AppGet. The client and backend services will go into maintenance mode immediately until August 1st, 2020, at which point they’ll be shut down permanently.

  • Apache Pulsar joins Kafka in Splunk Data Stream Processor

    Splunk built out its event streaming capabilities with a new update, released Wednesday, to its Data Stream Processor to bring in more data for analysis on the Splunk platform.

    The DSP technology is a foundational component of the information security and event management vendor's Data-to-Everything approach.

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Graphics: Wayland in 2020, NVIDIA, AMD and Khronos

tuxmachines.org - staro 20 ur 53 min
  • Wayland in 2020

    It is nearly a year since my last blog article about Wayland on Linux. Thus I thought it is time for an update on how my desktop with sway developed. What happened?

  • Mainline Linux Kernel Starts Seeing A NVIDIA Tegra X1 Video Input Driver

    While the Tegra X1 SoC (Tegra210) has been available for several years, finally with the upcoming Linux 5.8 kernel is a mainline driver contributed by NVIDIA for the video input support.

    The Tegra X1 features a high-end video input controller that can support up to six MIPI CSI camera sensors concurrently.

  • AMDVLK 2020.Q2.4 Released With TMZ Enabled, Improved Memory Allocation

    As the first open-source code drop in two weeks, AMDVLK 2020.Q2.4 is out today as the latest update to this official open-source AMD Radeon Vulkan driver stack for Linux.

    AMDVLK 2020.Q2.4 comes with improved memory allocation for systems not using any local invisible memory, command buffer prefetch is now disabled for local memory, TMZ is enabled, and a back-end optimization for kills is used. There are also several bug fixes concerning the Radeon Graphics Profiler and other targeted bug fixes.

  • Khronos Releases OpenVG 1.1 Lite For High Quality Vector Graphics On Mobile

    It's been a while since hearing of OpenVG as The Khronos Group's hardware-accelerated 2D vector graphics API. But today they announced a "Lite" version of OpenVG 1.1.

    OpenVG 1.1 as their latest version came back in 2008 and since then there hasn't been much to report on this vector graphics API besides maintenance tasks and a short-lived OpenVG Gallium3D state tracker. Out today though is the provisional specification of OpenVG 1.1 Lite.

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IBM/Red Hat Leftovers

tuxmachines.org - staro 20 ur 57 min

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Chrome, Mozilla and Firefox Leftovers

tuxmachines.org - staro 21 ur 3 min
  • Chrome 84 Beta: Web OTP, Web Animations, New Origin Trials and More

    Unless otherwise noted, changes described below apply to the newest Chrome beta channel release for Android, Chrome OS, Linux, macOS, and Windows. Learn more about the features listed here through the provided links or from the list on ChromeStatus.com. Chrome 84 is beta as of May 28, 2020.

  • Chrome 84 Beta Brings Better Web Animations API, Experimental WebAssembly SIMD

    Following the recent Chrome 83 release, Chrome 84 has now been promoted to beta.

    The Chrome 84 Beta is bringing Web OTP API (SMS Receiver API) support on Android, significant improvements to its Web Animations API implementation, WebAssembly SIMD support with a 128-bit value type is now available via the Origin trials (experimental functionality) along with a Cookie Store API, Idle Detection API, and other trial features.

  • Should you buy a Chromebook?

    With more and more people buying laptops to work or learn from home, a lot of folks are probably looking into the prospect of switching to a lighter, cheaper Chromebook instead of a traditional Windows or Mac laptop. Chromebooks come at a wide range of price points and with a variety of features, but the big question for most people is about Chrome OS itself. How hard is it to switch? What are Android apps like? Does Linux support really work, and how well? Do Chromebooks make good tablets? Can I use Firefox on one? We'll cover as much of that as we can in this post.

  • Firefox features for remote school (that can also be used for just about anything)

    Helping kids with school work can be challenging in the best of times (“new” math anyone?) let alone during a worldwide pandemic. These Firefox features can help make managing school work, and remote summer classes if those are on your horizon, a little easier.

  • The influence of hardware on Firefox build times

    I recently upgraded my aging “fast” build machine. Back when I assembled the machine, it could do a full clobber build of Firefox in about 10 minutes. That was slightly more than 10 years ago. This upgrade, and the build times I’m getting on the brand new machine (now 6 months old) and other machines led me to look at how some parameters influence build times.

    [...]

    The XPS13 being old, it is subject to thermal throttling, making it slower than it should be, but it wouldn’t beat the 10 years old desktop anyway. Macbook Pros tend to get into these thermal issues after a while too.

    I’ve relied on laptops for a long time. My previous laptop before this XPS was another XPS, that is now about 6 to 7 years old, and while the newer one had more RAM, it was barely getting better build times compared to the older one when I switched. The evolution of laptop performance has been underwelming for a long time, but things finally changed last year. At long last.

    I wish I had numbers with a more recent laptop under the same OS as the XPS for fairer comparison. Or with the more recent larger laptops that sport even more cores, especially the fancy ones with Ryzen processors.

  • Writing inside organizations

    My team keeps snippets, which kinda-sorta feels like a blog-like interface for sharing context. We keep our snippets in a google doc largely because it has a low barrier to entry and it's a fast solution. However, I find that keeping snippets in a doc really limits the value I personally get from keeping a weekly log. Ostensibly, the value to writing snippets is keeping my team up to date on my work. However, I find that the secondary personal benefits are the ones that keep me motivated to write updates.

  • Mozilla Localization (L10N): L10n Report: May 2020 Edition

    IMPORTANT: Firefox 78 is the next ESR (Extended Support Release) version. That’s a more stable version designed for enterprises, but also used in some Linux distributions, and it remains supported for about a year. Once Firefox 78 moves to release, that content will remain frozen until that version becomes unsupported (about 15 months), so it’s important to ship the best localization possible.

  • Mozilla’s journey to environmental sustainability

    The programme may be new, but the process has been shaping for years: In March 2020, Mozilla officially launched a dedicated Environmental Sustainability Programme, and I am proud and excited to be stewarding our efforts.

    Since we launched, the world has been held captive by the COVID-19 pandemic. People occasionally ask me, “Is this really the time to build up and invest in such a large-scale, ambitious programme?” My answer is clear: Absolutely.

  • Mozilla Privacy Blog: An opportunity for openness and user agency in the proposed Facebook-Giphy merger

    Facebook is squarely in the crosshairs of global competition regulators, but despite that scrutiny, is moving to acquire Giphy, a popular platform that lets users share images on social platforms, such as Facebook, or messaging applications, such as WhatsApp. This merger – how it is reviewed, whether it is approved, and if approved under what sort of conditions – will set a precedent that will influence not only future mergers, but also the shape of legislative reforms being actively developed all around the world. It is crucial that antitrust agencies incorporate into their processes a deep understanding of the nature of the open internet and how it promotes competition, how data flows between integrated services, and in particular the role played by interoperability.

    Currently Giphy is integrated with numerous independent social messaging services, including, for example, Slack, Signal, and Twitter. A combined Facebook-Giphy would be in a position to restrict access by those companies, whether to preserve their exclusivity or to get leverage for some other reason. This would bring clear harm to users who would suddenly lose the capabilities they currently enjoy, and make it harder for other companies to compete.

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