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LWN.net is a comprehensive source of news and opinions from and about the Linux community. This is the main LWN.net feed, listing all articles which are posted to the site front page.
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Security updates for Monday

Pon, 05/16/2022 - 14:32
Security updates have been issued by CentOS (gzip, java-1.8.0-openjdk, java-11-openjdk, and zlib), Debian (adminer, htmldoc, imagemagick, libgoogle-gson-java, lrzip, openjdk-8, openssl, and ruby-nokogiri), Fedora (ecdsautils, et, libxml2, podman, and supertux), Mageia (cairo, clamav, curl, fish, freetype2, golang-github-prometheus-client, python-django-registration, python-nbxmpp, python-waitress, and xmlrpc-c), Red Hat (pcs), SUSE (curl, kernel, pidgin, and webkit2gtk3), and Ubuntu (tiff).

Kernel prepatch 5.18-rc7

Pon, 05/16/2022 - 02:19
The 5.18-rc7 kernel prepatch has been released for testing. Linus says: "So things continue to be fairly calm, and as such this is likely the last rc before 5.18 unless something bad happens next week".

Sunday's stable kernels

Ned, 05/15/2022 - 21:20
The 5.17.8, 5.15.40, 5.10.116, 5.4.194, 4.19.243, 4.14.279, and 4.9.314 stable kernels have been released; each contains another set of important fixes.

[$] Proactive reclaim for tiered memory and more

Pet, 05/13/2022 - 17:46
Memory reclaim in Linux is largely a reactive practice; the kernel tries to find memory it can repurpose in response to the amount of free memory falling too low. Developers have often wondered if a proactive reclaim mechanism might lead to better performance, for some workloads at least, and optimal use of tiered-memory systems will likely require more active reclamation of memory as well. At the 2022 Linux Storage, Filesystem, Memory-management and BPF Summit (LSFMM), Davidlohr Bueso led a brief session on the topic.

[$] CXL 1: Management and tiering

Pet, 05/13/2022 - 16:16
Compute Express Link (CXL) is an upcoming memory technology that is clearly on the minds of Linux memory-management developers; there were five sessions dedicated to the topic at the 2022 Linux Storage, Filesystem, Memory-management and BPF Summit (LSFMM). The first three sessions, on May 3, covered various aspects of memory management in the presence of CXL. It seems that CXL may bring some welcome capabilities, especially for cloud-service providers, but that will come at the cost of some headaches on the kernel-development side.

Security updates for Friday

Pet, 05/13/2022 - 15:05
Security updates have been issued by Debian (chromium, postgresql-11, postgresql-13, and waitress), Fedora (curl, java-1.8.0-openjdk-aarch32, keylime, and pcre2), Oracle (gzip and zlib), Red Hat (subversion:1.10), SUSE (clamav, documentation-suse-openstack-cloud, kibana, openstack-keystone, openstack-monasca-notification, e2fsprogs, gzip, and kernel), and Ubuntu (libvorbis and rsyslog).

[$] Merging the multi-generational LRU

Čet, 05/12/2022 - 16:42
Many types of kernel changes can be hammered into shape on the mailing lists. There are certain types of patches, however, that have a hard time getting to the finish line that way; they are sufficiently large and invasive that they need an actual gathering of the developers involved. The multi-generational LRU work (MGLRU) falls into this category, which is why it was the subject of a full-hour session at the 2022 Linux Storage, Filesystem, Memory-management and BPF Summit (LSFMM). The discussion held there may well have opened the doors for this code to be merged in the near future.

AlmaLinux 8.6 released

Čet, 05/12/2022 - 15:57
Just one day after the RHEL 8.6 release, AlmaLinux 8.6 Stable has been released. See the release notes for more information. The AlmaLinux OS Foundation is excited to announce that AlmaLinux OS 8.6 Stable is now available. Just like a flash after the beta release. This stable release is for the x86_64, aarch64 and ppc64le architectures and is ready for production installations and to power all your computing needs and workloads. Grab it from the nearest mirror and join us on the AlmaLinux Community Chat to discuss.

A big crop of new stable kernels

Čet, 05/12/2022 - 15:34
Seven new stable kernels were released: 5.17.7, 5.15.39, 5.10.115, 5.4.193, 4.19.242, 4.14.278, and 4.9.313. As usual, they contain important fixes throughout the tree and users of those series should upgrade.

[$] Solutions for direct-map fragmentation

Čet, 05/12/2022 - 15:21
The kernel's "direct map" makes the entirety of a system's physical memory available in the kernel's virtual address space. Normally, huge pages are used for this mapping, making it relatively efficient to access. Increasingly, though, there is a need to carve some pages out of the direct map; this splits up those huge pages and makes the system as a whole less efficient. During a memory-management session at the 2022 Linux Storage, Filesystem, Memory-management and BPF Summit (LSFMM), Mike Rapoport led a session on direct-map fragmentation and how it might be avoided.

Security updates for Thursday

Čet, 05/12/2022 - 15:10
Security updates have been issued by Fedora (microcode_ctl, mingw-SDL2_ttf, seamonkey, and thunderbird), Mageia (cifs-utils, gerbv, golang, libcaca, libxml2, openssl, python-pillow, python-rencode, python-twisted, python-ujson, slurm, and sqlite3), Red Hat (gzip, kernel, kpatch-patch, podman, rsync, subversion:1.10, and zlib), Scientific Linux (gzip), Slackware (curl), SUSE (clamav), and Ubuntu (curl, firefox, linux, linux-aws, linux-aws-5.13, linux-azure, linux-azure-5.13, linux-gcp, linux-gcp-5.13, linux-hwe-5.13, linux-kvm, linux-oracle, linux-raspi, linux, linux-aws, linux-aws-hwe, linux-azure, linux-azure-4.15, linux-dell300x, linux-gcp, linux-gcp-4.15, linux-hwe, linux-kvm, linux-oracle, linux-snapdragon, linux, linux-aws, linux-azure, linux-azure-5.4, linux-azure-fde, linux-gcp, linux-gcp-5.4, linux-gke, linux-gkeop, linux-gkeop-5.4, linux-hwe-5.4, linux-ibm, linux-ibm-5.4, linux-kvm, linux-oracle, linux-oracle-5.4, linux-raspi, linux-raspi-5.4, linux, linux-aws, linux-kvm, linux-lts-xenial, and linux-oem-5.14).

[$] LWN.net Weekly Edition for May 12, 2022

Čet, 05/12/2022 - 02:21
The LWN.net Weekly Edition for May 12, 2022 is available.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9 released

Sre, 05/11/2022 - 23:54
On May 10, Red Hat announced the release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9 (RHEL 9). Not surprisingly, the announcement is rather buzzword-heavy and full of marketing, though there are some technical details scattered in it. The release notes for the RHEL 9 beta are available, which have a lot more information. "The platform will be generally available in the coming weeks." Building on decades of relentless innovation, the latest version of the world’s leading enterprise Linux platform is the first production release built from CentOS Stream, the continuously delivered Linux distribution that tracks just ahead of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. This approach helps the broader Red Hat Enterprise Linux ecosystem, from partners to customers to independent users, provide feedback, code and feature updates to the world’s leading enterprise Linux platform.

NVIDIA Transitioning To Official, Open-Source Linux GPU Kernel Driver (Phoronix)

Sre, 05/11/2022 - 22:53
Phoronix reports that the days of proprietary NVIDIA graphics drivers are coming to a close.

NVIDIA's open kernel modules is already considered "production ready, opt-in" for data center GPUs. For GeForce and workstation GPUs, the open kernel module code is considered "alpha quality" but will be ramped up moving forward with future releases. NVIDIA has already deprecated the monolithic kernel module approach for their data center GPU support to focus on this open kernel driver solution (and their existing proprietary kernel module using the GSP). Only Turing and newer GPUs will be supported by this open-source kernel driver. Pre-Turing GPUs are left to using the existing proprietary kernel drivers or the Nouveau DRM driver for that matter.

The user-space code remains proprietary, though, which could inhibit the eventual merging of this code into the mainline kernel.

Update: here is NVIDIA's press release on the new drivers.

[$] Changing filesystem resize patterns

Sre, 05/11/2022 - 21:19
In a filesystem session at the 2022 Linux Storage, Filesystem, Memory-management and BPF Summit (LSFMM), Ted Ts'o brought up the subject of filesystems that get resized frequently and whether the default parameters for filesystem creation should change as a result. It stems from a conversation that he had with XFS developer Darrick Wong, who is experiencing some of the same challenges as ext4 in this area. He outlined the problem and how it comes about, then led the discussion on ways to perhaps address it.

[$] Better tools for out-of-memory debugging

Sre, 05/11/2022 - 20:36
Out-of-memory (OOM) situations are dreaded by users, system administrators, and kernel developers alike. Usually, all that is known is that a lot of memory is being used somewhere and the system has run out, but the kernel provides little help to anybody trying to figure out where the memory has gone. In a memory-management session at the 2022 Linux Storage, Filesystem, Memory-management and BPF Summit (LSFMM), Kent Overstreet asked what could be done to improve OOM reports and reduce the pain for all involved.

The 2022 Python Language Summit (PSF blog)

Sre, 05/11/2022 - 20:35
Over on the Python Software Foundation (PSF) blog, Alex Waygood has a report from this year's Python Language Summit. There are reports from each of the nine sessions, including "Python without the GIL", The 'Faster CPython' project: 3.12 and beyond", "F-Strings in the grammar", lightning talks, and more.

[$] Seeking an API for protection keys supervisor

Sre, 05/11/2022 - 15:11
Memory protection keys are a CPU feature that allows additional access restrictions to be imposed on regions of memory and changed in a fast and efficient way. Support for protection keys in user space has been in the kernel for some time, but kernel-side protection (often called "protection keys supervisor" or PKS) remains unsupported — on x86, at least. At the 2022 Linux Storage, Filesystem, Memory-management and BPF Summit (LSFMM), Ira Weiny provided an update on the state of PKS and led a discussion on what the proper in-kernel API for PKS should be.

The malicious "rustdecimal" crate

Sre, 05/11/2022 - 14:55
The Rust Blog warns developers of a malicious crate named rustdecimal, which was evidently targeted at GitLab users who mistype rust_decimal.

The crate contained identical source code and functionality as the legit rust_decimal crate, except for the Decimal::new function.

When the function was called, it checked whether the GITLAB_CI environment variable was set, and if so it downloaded a binary payload into /tmp/git-updater.bin and executed it. The binary payload supported both Linux and macOS, but not Windows.

Security updates for Wednesday

Sre, 05/11/2022 - 14:25
Security updates have been issued by Debian (mutt), Fedora (blender, freerdp, kernel, kernel-headers, kernel-tools, mingw-freetype, and vim), Oracle (kernel and kernel-container), Red Hat (aspell, bind, bluez, c-ares, cairo and pixman, cockpit, compat-exiv2-026, container-tools:3.0, container-tools:rhel8, cpio, dovecot, exiv2, fapolicyd, fetchmail, flatpak, gfbgraph, gnome-shell, go-toolset:rhel8, grafana, grub2, httpd:2.4, keepalived, kernel, kernel-rt, libpq, libreoffice, libsndfile, libssh, libtiff, lynx, maven:3.5, maven:3.6, mod_auth_mellon, mod_auth_openidc:2.3, openssh, php:7.4, pki-core:10.6, postgresql:10, python-lxml, python27:2.7, python3, python38:3.8 python38-devel:3.8, python39:3.9 python39-devel:3.9, qt5-qtbase, qt5-qtsvg, rust-toolset:rhel8, samba, squid:4, udisks2, virt:rhel virt-devel:rhel, webkit2gtk3, xorg-x11-server xorg-x11-server-Xwayland, and zsh), SUSE (gzip and php-composer), and Ubuntu (busybox, cairo, cron, dnsmasq, libsndfile, and nss).